November 2008 © Thomas Kleissl
3, Salurner Straße
Friedrich Pasch and his wife Rosa, née Stiassny lived together with their children Trude, Ilse and Dora at 3, Salurner Straße. During the pogrom night the dwelling was devastated and 15 year-old Dora was hurt. The father was arrested and tortured by the Gestapo.
The whole family was able to escape to England.
The dwelling and the “Modehaus Friedrich Pasch”, a clothing shop in 21, Maria-Theresien-Strasse in downtown, were arynazed by Gauhauptstellenleiter Walter Veith. (I)
21, Maria-Theresien-Straße – Modehaus Friedrich Pasch, 1938 (a)
März 2010 © Manfred Mühlmann
8, Salurner Straße – Landauer family
Siegfried Landauer, originally from Hohenems, lived with his wife Laura, née Zentner, and their daughters Johanna and Irma at 8, Salurnerstraße. Hans and Ernst David Heuer, children of Selda Lea, née Weiner, and Dr. Munisch Heuer, temporarily lived with the Landauer family at 2, Amthorstraße after their apartment was dissolved.
During the November Pogrom, Nazi thugs broke into the apartment and destroyed the furnishings. Siegfried Landauer was beaten and arrested. His wife and children escaped unharmed. While 7-year-old Hans hid under the sofa, his 10-year-old brother Ernst David remained still under his blanket with a pocket knife.
Leonhard Landauer, the 27-year-old son, fled to Switzerland after the “Anschluss” in March 1938. His parents and sisters were forced to resettle in Vienna on November 24, 1938, and were soon arrested. They were deported to Maly Trostinec at the end of May 1942 and were killed there on June 1, 1942. Leonhard was the only one to survive.
Dr. Munisch Heuer had a medical practice at 41, Pradler Straße and lived with his family at 2, Amthorstraße. He emigrated to Kaunas (Kowno), Lithuania in time. His wife Selda Lea was not in Innsbruck during the November pogrom since she was in Vienna obtaining visas for herself and her children. They too left Innsbruck for Vienna and then Lithuania on November 24, 1938. The entire Heuer family was arrested in 1942. Hans and Selda Lea were murdered in the Stutthof concentration camp in 1944, while Munisch died in 1945 during the liberation of the KZ-Kaufering camps from an American bomb. Ernst David was the only survivor and recorded his life story under the name David Ben-Dor. (Guggenberger) (II)
November 2008 © Thomas Kleissl
11, Salurner Straße
On the 3rd floor of the 11, Salurner Straße high-rise was the headquarters of the SS Standarte, where the commanders and members of the SS gathered in civilian clothes on the night of November 9 to 10, 1938, after the traditional appeals at Adolf Hitler Square (Landestheater). SS-Oberführer Johann Feil, in the presence of SS-Standartenführer Erwin Fleiss and on behalf of Gauleiter Franz Hofer, gave the men a clear assignment: to silently kill the male Jews living in Gänsbacherstraße. (Oswald)
As a result, the assembled killing squads were dispatched with clear orders to each district to act violently against Jewish families. (II)
The photos of the Landauer family were provided to me by teh Jewish Museum Hohenems and come from the Hohenems Genealogy family research project. My thanks go to the Jewish Museum Hohenems and in particular to Junia Wiedenhofer.
(I) Gerhard Buzas
(II) Translated by OpenAI’s ChatGPT
Thomas Albrich (Hg.) < Die Täter des Judenpogroms 1938 in Innsbruck > Haymon Verlag Innsbruck-Wien 2016, S 240
Christoph W. Bauer < Graubart Boulevard > Haymon Verlag Innsbruck-Wien 2008
Christoph W. Bauer < Im Alphabet der Häuser - Roman einer Stadt > Haymon Verlag Innsbruck-Wien 2007, S 275
Christoph W. Bauer < "Viel vor Augen und kein Blatt vor dem Mund - Eine Begegnung mit Dorli Reale" > in: Die zweite Fremde – Zehn jüdische Lebensbilder, Haymon Verlag Innsbruck-Wien 2013, S 45-62
David Ben-Dor < Die schwarze Mütze > Reclam Verlag Leipzig 2000
David Ben-Dor < Befreit. Mein Weg zurück ins Leben >Reclam Verlag Leipzig 2001
David Bullock < Über Nacht war ich Jüdin > in: Echo 02/2009, S 48-49
Michael Guggenberger < Unbekannte Täter im Novemberpogrom in Innsbruck > in: Thomas Albrich (Hg.) – Die Täter des Judenpogroms 1938 in Innsbruck, Haymon Verlag Innsbruck-Wien 2016, S 361-363
Gretl Köfler < Die “Reichskristallnacht” > in: Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes (Hg.) – Widerstand und Verfolgung in Tirol 1934 bis 1945 – Österreichischer Bundesverlag Wien 1984, Band 1, S 448-462
Maximilian Oswald < SS-Oberführer Johann Feil > in: Thomas Albrich (Hg.) – Die Täter des Judenpogroms 1938 in Innsbruck, Haymon Verlag Innsbruck-Wien 2016, S 28-31
Horst Schreiber < Jüdische Geschäfte in Innsbruck – Eine Spurensuche > Projekt des Abendgymnasiums Innsbruck; Tiroler Studien zu Geschichte und Politik 1, Michael-Gaismair-Gesellschaft (Hg.) , StudienVerlag 2001
Horst Schreiber < "Dora Pasch-Neale: Mit einem Kindertransport in die Freiheit", > in: Nationalsozialismus und Faschismus in Tirol und Südtirol – Opfer . Täter . Gegner, Tiroler Studien zu Geschichte und Politik, Michael-Gaismair-Gesellschaft, StudienVerlag 2008, S 282-283
Gad Hugo Sella < Die Juden Tirols – Ihr Leben und Schicksal >Israel 1979
Ernst Oppenheim < To Remember Me By - First Crusade Through Holocaust - Facts, Fragments, Lore and Legends > Nobis Press 2001
(b) Fotos Familie Landauer © Jüdisches Museum Hohenems
(1) http://www.lesen.tsn.at/index.php?menu=3&con_id=4317 – visit 29.03.2010
(2) Video Dorli Neale – http://vimeo.com/3801353 – visit 02.11.2009
(3) Email Irmgard Bibermann 18.08.2016
Valerie Neal – Emails
Dorli Neale Audioguide erinnern.at – https://www.dropbox.com/sh/fmq2ny6n8uc5778/b-wTtDjCxU/DorliNeale-Audioguide.mp3
The Central Database of Shoah Victims´ Names – http://www.yadvashem.org/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_9E
Hohenems Genealogie – Siegfried Landauer – visit 25.10.2013