January 2008 – © Thomas Kleissl
In 1, Anichstraße lived Julius and Emma Pasch, née Schneider together with their six children Hilde, Edith, Janne (Marianne), Hans, Gerda and Ruth, on the third storey of the ‘Zelgerhaus’. Julius Pasch was President of the Jewish Community prior to 1938 and, together with his wife, ran two shoe stores in Maria-Theresien-Straße, at number 13 and 17–19.
Shoe store Julius Pasch, 1938 (a)
Following the takeover by the NSDAP and the Aryanisation of the shoe shops, on November 1st, 1938 Julius and Emma Pasch and their two youngest children Gerda and Ruth were expelled from their apartment. They were quartered in the apartment of Anna Seidl and Adolf Neumann, an old Jewish couple, in 29, Andreas-Hofer-Straße. A “gang of thugs” broke into that apartment during the night of the progrom.
Family Julius and Emma Pasch (b)
The four eldest siblings (Hilde, Edith, Janne and Hans) had already all left Innsbruck very shortly after the Anschluss. They travelled, often separately, to Italy, France, England, Spain, and Cuba. Hans was interned by the British for 2 years in Austrialia as an ‘enemy alien’. The two younger siblings (Gerda and Ruth) left Innsbruck with their parents at the very end of November 1938. They were sent alone to boarding school in England, later living and working in London and Slough during the Blitz. Julius and Emma travelled via Italy, France and Spain to Cuba. Eventually, Julius and Emma succeeded in bringing all their six adult children to New York. There, Julius died in 1946 and Emma in 1952.
March 2017 – © Thomas Kleissl
Julius and Rosa Meisel lived together with their nephew Marcel Meisel in 3, Anichstraße. On the pogromnight Julius Meisel was hurt. The married couple Meisel was deported 1942 from Vienna to Poland and murdered there. Marcel could emigrate in June 1938 to England.
Fashion House Julius Meisel (c)
The “Fashion House Julius Meisel” with same address has been aryanized in June 1938 and taken over by “Rabitsch & Richter”. (I)
November 2008 – © Thomas Kleissl
Gertrude, née Weiss and Josef Adler, alderman of the federal railway and brother-in-law of the murdered Richard Berger were assaulted in their apartment in 5, Anichstraße and seriously injured as a result of blows to the head.
They moved to Vienna, where he died from the injuries in Jannuary 1939. (II)
Josef Adler, 1937 (d)
March 2017 – © Thomas Kleissl
At number 7 there was the furniture shop founded by Michael Brüll and the flats of his children.
Furniture shop Michael Brüll, 1938 (e)
On the pogrom night Rudolf Brüll and his wife Julie, née Steinharter were injured by blows and kicks. They lived together with their daughter Ilse.
Josef Brüll and his wife Antonie, née Wasserer and their daughter Inge also lived there. Josef was injured by kicks and was arrested by the Gestapo together with his brothers Rudolf and Franz.
The major part of the families moved to Vienna in January 1939.
Rudolf and Julie Brüll were captured during their flight and survived the Theresienstadt concentration camp of. Their daughter Ilse was gassed in Auschwitz in 1942. After 1945 they returned to Innsbruck, where Rudolf Brüll had to fight for his furniture shop and remained president of the newly founded Israelite Community until his death. Felix and Franz Brüll also returned from exile.
Brüll families (f)
November 2008 – © Thomas Kleissl
Richard Berger lived with his wife Grete, née Weiss and his sons Walter and Fritz in 13, Anichstraße. He was president of the Jewish community. On the night of November 9 to 10, 1938, he was abducted and taken by car in the direction of Zirl, which is west of Innsbruck, about 2 to 3 kilometers behind Kranebitten. Once there, Richard Berger was taken to the bank of the river Inn where he was stoned to death. His dead body was then thrown into the river. (I)
Kranebitter Innauen Oktober 2013 © Thomas Kleissl
Grete Berger and her son Walter fled to Palestine, while her second son Fritz had already emigrated to England in 1938.
Family Richard and Grete Berger (g)
1945 Fritz Berger was involved in the detention of Gerhard Lausegger, one of the main perpetrators in the assassination of his father Richard Berger.
A street which was named after Richard Berger can today be found in the industrial area of Neuarzl, a district east of Innsbruck. (II)
On July 9th 2007 Fritz Benson, earlier Berger, son of Richard Berger died in United Kingdom. On July 16th 2007 Richard Benson wrote in the guestbook :
“I am Richard Benson, son of Fritz Berger. My father unfortunately died on July 9th 2007 and I was looking for contact details for the Jewish Cultural Centre so that I could advise them of what has happened. In doing so, I discovered this site and would like to say how well it has been put together and what a valuable resource it is. A big thank you to all responsible.” Richard Benson
Valerie Neal, daughter of Ruth Pasch called my attention to the book “To Remember Me By”, in which her father Ernst Oppenheim published the history of family Emma and Julius Pasch. She generously provided private photos of her family for this project and edited the text.
Inge Brüll, daughter of Josef and Antonie, has been fighting for the memory of her cousin Ilse and died on September 7, 2011 in Innsbruck. All private photos showing members of the Brüll family were made available by Inge Brüll, for which I will ever be thankful.
(I) Gerhard Buzas
(II) Johanna Dehler
Martin Achrainer < Das Pogrom-Denkmal > in: Gabriele Rath / Andrea Sommerauer / Martha Verdorfer (Hg.), “Bozen Innsbruck – zeitgeschichtliche stadtrundgänge”, Folio Verlag 2000, S 85 – 89
Frederick Richard Benson (Fritz Berger) < Kristallnacht - The Return - An account of the events of Kristallnacht, 9th November 1938, as happened at Innsbruck, Austria, the search for my father´s murderer and my eventual success. > London 1946, transcribed from the original by Richard Benson 2008
Sabine Falch < “Palästina? Was finden wir dort? Doch nur Sand, Kamele und Araber!” – Tirols Juden und der Zionismus vor 1938 > in: Thomas Albrich (Hg.), „Wir lebten wie sie…“. Jüdische Lebensgeschichten aus Tirol und Vorarlberg, Haymon-Verlag Innsbruck 1999, S. 53 – 84
Michael Gehler < Spontaner Ausdruck des "Volkszorns"?, Neue Aspekte zum Innsbrucker Judenpogrom vom 9./10. November 1938 > in: Zeitgeschichte, 18.Jahr, Okt.1990-Dez.1991, Heft 1-12
Gretl Köfler < Die "Reichskristallnacht" > in: Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes (Hg.) – Widerstand und Verfolgung in Tirol 1934 bis 1945 – Österreichischer Bundesverlag Wien 1984, Band 1, S 448-462
Julia König < Ilse Brüll: "Ich gehe zu Annemarie und Evi." - Ihr Leben, ihre Flucht und ihr Tod in Auschwitz > in: Thomas Albrich (Hg.), „Wir lebten wie sie…“. Jüdische Lebensgeschichten aus Tirol und Vorarlberg, Haymon-Verlag Innsbruck 1999, S. 199 – 216
Ernst Oppenheim < To Remember Me By - First Crusade Through Holocaust - Facts, Fragments, Lore and Legends > Nobis Press
Sabine Pitscheider < Der Möbelfabrikant Michael Brüll - Gründer des "Innsbrucker Etablissements für Wohnungseinrichtung" > in: Thomas Albrich (Hg.), ” Von Salomon Sulzer bis “”Bauer & Schwarz”” – Jüdische Vorreiter der Moderne in Tirol und Vorarlberg”, Haymon Verlag 2009, S 305 -324
Wolfgang Plat < Die Ermordung Richard Bergers, in: Voll Leben und voll Tod ist diese Erde. Bilder aus der Geschichte der Jüdischen Österreicher von 1190 bis 1938, Herold Verlag im Wiener Dom - Verlag 1988, S. 266 ff
Wolfgang Plat < Ilse Brüll - Vergangen wie ein Rauch > in: Voll Leben und voll Tod ist diese Erde. Bilder aus der Geschichte der Jüdischen Österreicher von 1190 bis 1938, Herold Verlag im Wiener Dom – Verlag 1988, S. 272 ff
Horst Schreiber < Jüdische Geschäfte in Innsbruck - Eine Spurensuche > Projekt des Abendgymnasiums Innsbruck; Tiroler Studien zu Geschichte und Politik 1, herausgegeben von der Michael-Gaismair-Gesellschaft, StudienVerlag 2001, S 44-46
Horst Schreiber < Die Kontroverse um die Prof.-Franz-Mair-Gasse 1980/81 > in: Schreiber “Widerstand und Erinnerung in Tirol 1938-1998”, StudienVerlag 2000; http://www.horstschreiber.at/horst_schreiber/texte_kontroverse-franzmairgasse#f8 visit 28.06.2009
Gad Hugo Sella < Die Juden Tirols - Ihr Leben und Schicksal > Israel 1979, S 83
(a, c, e) © Stadtarchiv / Stadtmuseum Innsbruck
(b) Private ownership by Valerie Neal
(d) Private ownership by Joseph Adler
(f) Private ownership by Ingeborg Brüll
(g) Private ownership by Richard B. Benson
Valerie Neal – various emails 2007/2008Ingeborg Brüll – various interviews 2006
Richard Benson – guestbook 16.07.2007, email 18.06.2009, interview 28.06.2009 Innsbruck
Joseph Adler – email November 20th, 2008
Ingeborg Brüll – videointerview Ingeborg Brüll – http://www.virtuelles-haus-der-geschichte-tirol.eu/jart/prj3/vhdgt/main.jart?rel=de&content-id=1239028816462&personen_id=1238422497570&sel-videos=y